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Paryz-depa ancient settlement.

Complex scientific expedition on monuments of Turkmenistan.

To Paryz-depa in Turkmenistan consists of three parts: the internal citadel towering on 2 - 3 meters over the level of the ancient settlement represents the correct rectangle of 45 × 50 m in size located in the center of the hill.
The city wall framing it is constructed by a usual mountain stone and a large brick on clay solution with watchtowers. The ancient settlement - the main part of a monument - represents the wrong pentagon of 160 × 200 meters in size.
On the upper edge of the hill the remains of the fortification framing it are visible. The northern part of the ancient settlement on 6 - 7 meters towers over the surrounding area gradually going down to the South.
Even at visual survey contours of walls of stone structures in the territory of the ancient settlement and in a citadel are distinctly allocated. The suburb - the city suburb - surrounds all sides of the hill.
The structure of a monument, the archeological finds and the conducted preliminary researches found here allow to make the conclusion that on Paryz-depe during the considerable historical period life continuously proceeded.
By results of the excavation which is carried out in the suburb of a monument, approximately in 300 meters to the north of the hill the structure of crosswise internal planning was revealed.
The two-row laying from a mountain stone on clay solution forms the basis (base) of a construction. Walls of the building are laid out by an adobe brick of 25 × 25 × 5 cm in size, together with a brick in a wall laying also the burned brick in the form of a square on clay solution was used.
Arch overlappings begin at the height of 80 cm from floor level. Thus, the general remained height of walls of a construction makes about 1,8 meters, corners of a construction are focused on parts of the world.
East niche of a crosswise construction served as the entrance issued in the form of a vaulted corridor with the ladder removing outside. The building is built lower than the level of the ancient Earth's surface and probably was cult.
Now active archaeological researches are conducted in the territory of a citadel to Paryz-depe. During excavation found a big fragment of a southeast part of a fortification, and also several rooms adjoining it.
Planning of rooms, generally rectangular. Walls are laid out characteristic of a Middle Ages era square, plastered by solution and whitewashed by lime. In places on a surface of walls 2 - 3 plaster coats remained that testifies to the long period of operation of the building.
Floor in one of rooms is executed with a small bias to the South and covered with alabaster. Rather narrow flute laid in a northern wall of the room, and also amphora fragments found here with a strong alabaster covering allow to make the conclusion about special mission of this room - perhaps, the production room was located here.
The remains of ancient constructions, the found fragments of ceramics and glass, the stone, metal instruments of labor and household stock, various devices revealed as a result of the archaeological researches conducted in the territory to Paryz-depe lives during the period from the Copper Stone Age (the V - IV millennium BC) before the late Middle Ages demonstrate existence here.
The silicon instruments of labor found on Paryz-depe serve as the material evidence of development of primitive economy and crafts of primitive people here. Also at excavation in the territory to Paryz-depe fragments of ancient ceramics with primitive the geometrical lines and figures put with black paint are found.
They demonstrate that an era of an eneolit (the V - IV millennium BC) life prospered here. Are dated the same chronological period found during excavation plaster and clay a pryaslitsa and the beads submitting interesting data on rudiments of development of traditional crafts, primitive jewelry art, on a way of life of the person in the ancient time.
It should be noted a terracotta wheel especially. The specified artifact is a characteristic subject of a bronze age (the III-II millennium BC) when the vehicle was for the first time invented. Separate part of an extensive ceramic collection is made by elements of the pottery dated by the early Iron Age (the I millennium BC).
The vessels decorated with a geometrical ornament on crude clay are distinguished from them. Written sources demonstrate that during an antique era in ancient Nisa suburbs - the first capital, the economic and cultural center of powerful Parthia - there were dozens of large settlements which completely provided needs of the residence of Parthian governors for agricultural production.
According to ancient inscriptions on ceramics fragments a tax during the specified time 17 settlements and 10 large settlements. According to scientists, Caches and other geographical toponyms not less known to us are mentioned in records.
It is quite probable that antique Paryz-depe served one of such settlements delivering various agrarian production and products to "the city of God-almighty". As a clear proof it is possible to point to the amphora (khoum) found in the territory of a monument.
On a surface of a big vessel (up to 1 meter high) an equal row applied a set of the seals. On the seals images of branches of various trees, and also bunches are clearly visible. During the Middle Ages to Paryz-depe also remained one of the settlements of Nisa.
According to medieval written sources, in the 10th century there comes the period of new economic recovery and blossoming of area of Nisa. At the beginning of the 11th century Seldzhuk is a part of the Turkmen state Great and becomes the large, developed medieval district.
She endures original blossoming in the development and turns into one of the main economic and cultural centers of Khurasan. In the Middle Ages of Nis was famous for the thinnest silks, cotton fabrics produced by local masters, various ceramic and metal products.

Allagula Berdyev, deputy director for scientific work of Institute of archeology and ethnography of Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan. Neutral Turkmenistan Newspaper. 2016. 09. 07 "Center of ancient culture".